Dean and Duffy shared MLK Dream
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Dean and Duffy shared MLK Dream

Dean Smith and Duffy Daugherty defied racism with their recruitment of black athletes

Photo: North Carolina basketball coach Dean Smith with Charlie Scott in 2011.

I was researching and writing “Raye of Light” when North Carolina basketball coach Dean Smith was named to receive the Medal of Freedom in a White House ceremony with President Obama in 2013. I learned Michigan State football coach Duffy Daugherty and Smith shared much in common.

Daugherty, who died at age 72 in 1987, and Smith won national titles and led the integration of college athletics. Mostly, though, they believed that “the time is always right to do right.”

Those were the words of Martin Luther King Jr. when he spoke at Michigan State on Feb. 11, 1965 before a full house of 4,000 people at the MSU Auditorium. King had been told by some white ministers that he was pushing integration too aggressively and to wait for the right time.

“Time is neutral,” King said in response, “and the time is always right to do right.”

That answer was taken from words he penned in “Letter from a Birmingham jail” in 1963. King also wrote, “justice too long delayed is justice denied.”

Duffy Daugherty did not wait for alumni approval to recruit black athletes from the North to play for his teams in the 1950s. When televised Michigan State games, including the 1954 Rose Bowl with Daugherty an assistant on head coach Biggie Munn's staff, and Duffy as the head coach for the 1956 Rose Bowl, revealed the number of black players on the Spartans’ roster, southern black high school coaches began contacting Daugherty.

They met him at clinics when Daugherty was the only coach making such an effort in the South. They steered their star athletes out of segregation to the land of opportunity on the East Lansing campus.

Daugherty did not wait for alumni approval to recruiting 44 black players from the segregated South between 1959 and 1972 (his last season). The southern recruits graduated at a 68-percent rate in an era before the academic supports systems that are now in pace in college athletic departments.

Among those southern black recruits escaping segregation were College Football Hall of Famers Bubba Smith of Beaumont, Tx., George Webster of Anderson, S.C., and Gene Washington of La Porte, Tx. Also, though, another unknown player was Clifton Roaf of Pine Bluff, Ark. He never played a down due to an injury but capitalized on his academic opportunity. He recently retired after 40 years as a dentist in his hometown.

Daugherty did not wait to start Jimmy Raye of Fayetteville, N.C., as the South’s first black quarterback to win a national title (the Spartans and Notre Dame were the National Football Foundation’s co-national champions in 1966). He also hired Sherman Lewis, an MSU All-American running back in 1963 that was third in the Heisman Trophy voting, and Raye among the first black assistant coaches in college football. Both went onto long NFL coaching careers, although they were denied an opportunity as a head coach. 

Daugherty may have been coaching in the North out of the reach of Jim Crow laws,but so was Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey when he broke Major League Baseball’s color line with Jackie Robinson in 1947. Both of them received their share of hate mail from racists.

The same was true with Dean Smith. He did not wait for the alumni to sign Charlie Scott as North Carolina’s first black scholarship athlete in 1966.

This is an excerpt on Smith from Chapter 19 of "Raye of Light:"

“In 1958, Dean Smith was merely a 27-year-old first-year assistant basketball coach to University of North Carolina head coach Frank McGuire when he challenged segregation at a popular restaurant in the UNC campus town of Chapel Hill. Smith told the story for the first time in his 2002 book, ‘A Coach’s Life.’
“Smith and Reverend Robert Seymour of Brinkley Baptist Church had a conversation about the need to do something to challenge segregation. Smith and a black theology student who was member at Brinkley Baptist sat down together at The Pines, a popular Chapel Hill restaurant. They were served without incident.
“ ‘You have to understand, Dean Smith wasn’t Dean Smith in 1958,' Seymour told John Feinstein in his book One on One. 'He was an assistant coach. It wasn’t out of the question that management might have complained to the university and he might have gotten in serious trouble. But he never hesitated to do it.’
“Upon learning the story decades later, Feinstein writes he asked Smith to comment on his bold challenge. Smith declined. Feinstein encouraged him, saying he should be proud of the moment in time.
“ ‘You should never be proud of doing the right thing,' Smith replied. 'You should just do it.’
“Smith soon succeeded Frank McGuire as head coach in the 1961-62 season. His career started slowly, with students hanging him in effigy on campus. Before he gained the clout of his first ACC titles or even his initial Final Four trip and national title, Smith signed Charlie Scott in 1966 as the Tar Heels’ first black scholarship player. Due to NCAA freshman eligibility rules, Scott’s first varsity season was as a sophomore in the 1967-68 season when he led the North Carolina to Smith’s first Final Four. In October 1968, Scott helped the USA basketball team win an Olympic gold medal at the Mexico City Games. A black athlete could represent the U.S. in a red-white-blue uniform in 1968 – but not Bear Bryant’s crimson and white Alabama uniform.”

That was something else Dean and Duffy shared: Courage to do the right thing and humility follow through without seeking attention or praise.

In February 1958, shortly before Smith arrived in Chapel Hill as a new North Carolina basketball assistant for the 1958-59 school year, Martin Luther King spoke before a full house of white and black citizens at esteemed Broughton High’s 1,300-seat auditorium. MLK's words that day can be read in the Broughton gym lobby:

“The philosophy of segregation is directly opposed to the philosophy of Christianity and the philosophy of democracy,” King said. “It is a cancer on the body politic, and until it is removed our democratic health cannot be realized. I believe there are many more people of goodwill in the white South today than we see on the surface. I call upon them in the name of the Almighty God to stand up and make a courageous stand to make justice reality. The Christian Church has a great role to play … it must continue to make a stand.”

Smith, who was from Emporia, Kansas, arrived in the white South as a person of goodwill. He stood up and made a courageous stand to make justice reality.

Dean Smith certainly deserved his Medal of Freedom, but his case makes me believe Daugherty deserves one, too. I wrote my own humble letter to the White House nominating Daugherty, but who knows where it stands at this point in the process. Who knows if it got past filters to a decision-maker. I'm confident President Obama would be inspired by the story if he heard it.

Duffy Daugherty and Dean Smith were two coaches who shared Martin Luther King’s dream.

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I invite you to follow me on Twitter @shanny4055

Tom Shanahan, Author: Raye of Light

-- Book on Michigan State's leading role in the integration of college football. It explains Duffy Daugherty's untold pioneering role and debunks myths that steered recognition away from him to Bear Bryant.


Don’t believe the myths at Duffy Daugherty’s expense about Bear Bryant’s motivation to play the 1970 USC-Alabama game or myths about the Charlie Thornhill-for-Joe Namath trade. Bear Bryant knew nothing about black talent in the South while he dragged his feet on segregation.


David Maraniss, Pulitzer Prize winner and biographer; "History writes people out of the story. It's our job to write them back in."


Click here for the link to order from August Publications


Tom Shanahan

Tom Shanahan

Tom Shanahan is an award-winning sportswriter and the author of "Raye of Light". Tom spent the bulk of his career in San DIego writing for the San Diego Union-Tribune. He has covered NCAA Tournaments, Super Bowls, Rose Bowls, the NBA Finals and the World Series in a career that included writing for Voice of San Diego, the San Diego Hall of Champions and He contributes to the Detroit Free Press, Raleigh News & Observer,, and the National Football Foundation's Football Matters. He won multiple first-place awards from the San Diego Press Club and first place from the Copley News Service Ring of Truth Awards. The National Football Foundation/San Diego Chapter presented him its Distinguished American Award in 2003. USA Track and Field’s San Diego Chapter presented its President’s Award in 2000.

Raye of Light: Jimmy Raye, Duffy Daugherty, the integration of college football and the 1965-66 Michigan State Spartans. It explains Duffy Daugherty's pioneering role and debunks myths that steered recognition away from him to Bear Bryant.

By Tom Shanahan; Foreword by Tony Dungy; August Publications

David Maraniss, Pulitzer Prize winner and biographer: "History writes people out of the story. It's our job to write them back in."